The paper starts with an introduction about the land of Palestine and its people, then moves to discussing several topics such as: factors contributing to biodiversity, the land as it was, changes in the green cover, population, occupation, economy, Palestinian society, agriculture, field crops, forages, vegetables, fruit trees, livestock, pesticides, role of women, and environmental awareness and biodiversity. It then discusses the challenges of promoting plant genetics resources and biodiversity, and how they can be faces.