Water scarcity in the West Bank poses a critical constraint to further expanding, or even maintaining present irrigated areas. There is an increasing demand for agricultural water use to be restricted in favour of other water consumers, such as local communities and industry. The fundamental question this paper addresses, however, is how wisely irrigation water is used in the West Bank, and whether modernization of irrigation through improvements in canal operating system or in the design of water control structures can effectively improve their performance.

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