The paper starts with a geopolitical background of Palestine, highlighting the changes after Oslo Agreement, and the impacts of this on the ground. It then moves on to talk about house demolitions, illegal outposts, bypass roads, closed military areas and military bases. In addition, the paper presents the Palestinian environmental dilemma, the depletion of water resources, pollution caused by Jewish settlers through industrial waste, deforestation and uprooting of trees. The paper also discusses the topics of illegal movement of hazardous waste from Israel to Palestine, solid wastes management in Palestine, and takes Nablus and Hebron municipalities as case studies. Furthermore, the paper discusses noise pollution, Palestinian wastewater, transportation and air pollution, and takes the case study of Beit Jala as an example.

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