In recent years, Area C has emerged as a key priority for both the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) and for the international actors in the development sectors. The Palestinian development of Area C is critical to empower existing Palestinian communities to preserve their assets, way of life, and most importantly their continued presence on the land. Furthermore, Area C connects the patchwork of the isolated and densely populated urban and rural communities located in Areas A and B. A contiguous and socioeconomically viable Palestinian State can thus only be achieved by opening Area C for Palestinian development and for the critical realization of a contiguous Palestinian State. To advocate for Palestinian control in Area C and to stress the priority actions and development plans in Area C, this report: (1) Analyses Palestinian and Israeli Settlers population distributions in Area C; (2) analyses the status or urban planning of the Palestinian communities in Area C; (3) assesses the economic potential of developing the natural resources in Area C; (4) assesses socio-economic conditions in Area C; (5) identifies challenges the communities face in Area C; (6) identifies most vulnerable communities; and (7) recommends development actions that respond to communities’ needs.